This research considers the question of whether Spoken Arabic learned in the home from Arabic speaking parents is a first language and Literary Arabic learned in school through reading and writing is a second language.
Here is what brain research had to say. "Diglossia in the Arabic language refers to the socio-linguistic situation in which Spoken Arabic (SA), which is the first to be acquired, is used for everyday communications, while Literary Arabic (LA), acquired at school for reading and writing, is also used for formal functions. Although some authors consider SA and LA as a first and second language, the question of how these are managed in the brain has not yet been understood. Using functional magnetic resonance brain imaging (fMRI) analysis, this study aimed at exploring the neural basis of diglossia during picture naming in two contexts. In the first, healthy young participants were instructed to name each image either in SA or LA on the basis of cue word appearing after the stimulus. In the second, they were instructed to name images either in SA or in Hebrew. Behavioral analysis showed that naming in SA was slightly easier than LA and considerably easier than Hebrew. fMRI analysis showed no difference between SA and LA. Hebrew compared to SA revealed activation differences explainable in terms of engagement of language control modules and second- to first-language effects. These findings, discussed in the light of previous findings in bilingual literature, support the view that dominance in diglossia is modality-dependent."
- Abou-Ghazaleh, A., A. Khateb, et al. (2018). "Lexical Competition between Spoken and Literary Arabic: A New Look into the Neural Basis of Diglossia Using fMRI." Neuroscience 393: 83-96.
In other words for these research subjects the difference in their fluency with Spoken Arabic and Litarary Arabic is like the difference between a first language and a second language.
The Poetry Posse 2018
The Year of the Poet project was the brain-child of Jamie Bond and William S. Peters, Sr. The original vision was to commit themselves to writing and publishing a book a month for the year of 2014. In further discussion the vision expanded to include the other Gifted & Talented Writers you see below. The objective is to bring the Poetry Community together with the various cross demographic representations found in Gender, Religion, Geography, Culture and Ethnicity. We hope you enjoy the myriad of perspectives represented here. Thank You, Inner Child Press International.
Gail Weston Shazor. This is a creative promise ~ my pen will speak to and for the world. Enamored with letters and respectful of their power, I have been writing for most of my life. A mother, daughter, sister and grandmother I give what I have been given, greatfilledly. Author of "An Overstanding of an Imperfect Love" & Notes from the Blue Roof Lies My Grandfathers Told Me available at Inner Child Press.
Caroline 'Ceri Naz' Nazareno-Gabis born in Anda, Pangasinan known as a ‘poet of peace and friendship’, is a multi-awarded poet, journalist, editor, publicist, linguist, educator, and women’s advocate. Graduated cum laude with the degree of Bachelor of Elementary Education, specialized in General Science at Pangasinan State University. Ceri have been a voracious researcher in various arts, science and literature. She volunteered in Richmond Multicultural Concerns Society, TELUS World Science, Vancouver Art Gallery, and Vancouver Aquarium. She was privileged to be chosen as one of the Directors of Writers Capital International Foundation ( WCIF ), Member of the Poetry Posse, one of the Board of Directors of Galaktika ATUNIS Magazine based in Albania; the World Poetry Canada and International Director to Philippines; Global Citizen’s Initiatives Member, Association for Women’s rights in Development ( AWID ) and Anacbanua. She has been a 4th Placer in World Union of Poets Poetry Prize 2016, Writers International NetworkCanada ‘’Amazing Poet 2015’’, The Frang Bardhi Literary Prize 2014 (Albania), the sair-gazeteci or Poet-Journalist Award 2014 (Tuzla, Istanbul, Turkey) and World Poetry Empowered Poet 2013 (Vancouver, Canada).
Elizabeth Esguerra Castillo is a multi-awarded and an Internationally-Published Contemporary Author/Poet and a Professional Writer / Creative Writer / Feature Writer / Journalist / Travel Writer from the Philippines. She has 2 published books, "Seasons of Emotions" (UK) and "Inner Reflections of the Muse", (USA). Elizabeth is also a coauthor to more than 60 international anthologies in the USA, Canada, UK, Romania, India. She is a Contributing Editor of Inner Child Magazine, USA and an Advisory Board Member of Reflection Magazine, an international literary magazine. She is a member of the American Authors Association (AAA) and PEN International. Web links: Facebook Fan Page https://free.facebook.com/ElizabethEsguerraCastillo Google Plus https://plus.google.com/u/0/+ElizabethCastillo
Tzemin Ition Tsai (蔡澤民博士) was born in Taiwan, Republic of China, in 1957. He holds a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering and two Masters of Science in Applied Mathematics and Chemical Engineering. He is an associate professor at the Asia University (Taiwan), editor of “Reading, Writing and Teaching” academic text. He also writes the long-term columns for Chinese Language Monthly in Taiwan. He is a scholar with a wide range of expertise, while maintaining a common and positive interest in science, engineering and literature member. He has won many national literary awards. His literary works have been anthologized and published in books, journals, and newspapers in more than 40 countries and have been translated into more than a dozen languages.
Shareef Abdur-Rasheed, AKA Zakir Flo was born and raised in Brooklyn, New York. His education includes Brooklyn College, Suffolk County Community College and Makkah, Saudi Arabia. He is a Veteran of the Viet Nam era, where in 1969 he reverted to his now reverently embraced Islamic Faith. He is very active in the Islamic community and beyond with his teachings, activism and his humanity. Shareef’s spiritual expression comes through the persona of "Zakir Flo." Zakir is Arabic for "To remind". Never silent, Shareef Abdur-Rasheed is always dropping science, love, consciousness and signs of the time in rhyme. Shareef is the Patriarch of the Abdur-Rasheed Family with 9 Children (6 Sons and 3 Daughters) and 41 Grandchildren (24 Boys and 17 Girls). For more information about Shareef, visit his personal FaceBook Page at https://www.facebook.com/shareef.abdurrasheed1 https://zakirflo.wordpress.com
Kimberly Burnham, PhD. (Integrative Medicine) Nerve Whisperer. Find yourself in the pattern. As a 28-year-old photographer, Kimberly Burnham appreciated beauty. Then an ophthalmologist diagnosed her with a genetic eye condition saying, "Consider life, if you become blind." She discovered a healing path with insight, magnificence, and vision. Today, 33 years later, a poet and neurosciences expert with a PhD in Integrative Medicine, Kimberly's life mission is to change the global face of brain health. Using health coaching, Reiki, Matrix Energetics, craniosacral therapy, acupressure, and energy medicine, she supports people in their healing from brain, nervous system, and chronic pain issues. As managing editor of Inner Child Magazine, Kimberly's 2019 project is peace, language, and visionary poetry with her recently published book, Awakenings: Peace Dictionary, Language and the Mind, a Daily Brain Health Program.
Jackie Davis Allen, otherwise known as Jacqueline D. Allen or Jackie Allen, grew up in the Cumberland Mountains of Appalachia. As the next eldest daughter of a coal miner father and a stay at home mother, she was the first in her family to attend and graduate from college. Her siblings, in their own right, are accomplished, though she is the only one, to date, that has discovered the gift of writing. Graduating from Radford University, with a Bachelors of Science degree in Early Education, she taught in both public and private schools. For over a decade she taught private art classes to children both in her home and at a local Art and Framing Shop where she also sold her original soft sculptured Victorian dolls and original christening gowns. She resides in northern Virginia with her husband, taking much needed get-aways to their mountain home near the Blue Ridge Mountains, a place that evokes memories of days spent growing up in the Appalachian Mountains. A lover of hats, she has worn many. Following marriage to her college sweetheart, and as wife, mother, grandmother, teacher, tutor, artist, writer, poet and crafter, she is a lover of art and antiques, surrounding herself, always, with books, seeking to learn more. In 2015 she authored Looking for Rainbows, Poetry, Prose and Art and in 2017, Dark Side of the Moon. Both books of mostly narrative poetry were published by Inner Child Press and were edited by hulya n. yilmaz.
Teresa E. Gallion was born in Shreveport, Louisiana and moved to Illinois at the age of 15. She completed her undergraduate training at the University of Illinois Chicago and received her master’s degree in Psychology from Bowling Green State University in Ohio. She retired from New Mexico state government in 2012. She moved to New Mexico in 1987. While writing sporadically for many years, in 1998 she started reading her work in the local Albuquerque poetry community. She has been a featured reader at local coffee houses, bookstores, art galleries, museums, libraries, Outpost Performance Space, the Route 66 Festival in 2001 and the State of Oklahoma’s Poetry Festival in Cheyenne, Oklahoma in 2004. She occasionally hosts an open mic. Teresa’s work is published in numerous Journals and anthologies. She has two CDs: On the Wings of the Wind and Poems from Chasing Light. She has published three books: Walking Sacred Ground, Contemplation in the High Desert and Chasing Light. Chasing Light was a finalist in the 2013 New Mexico/Arizona Book Awards. The surreal high desert landscape and her personal spiritual journey influence the writing of this Albuquerque poet. When she is not writing, she is committed to hiking the enchanted landscapes of New Mexico. You may preview her work at http://bit.ly/1aIVPNq or http://bit.ly/13IMLGh
Hulya N. Yilmaz, a retired Liberal Arts professor, hülya n. yılmaz [sic] is Co-Chair and Director of Editing Services at Inner Child Press International, and a literary translator. Her poetry has been published in an excess of sixty anthologies of global endeavors. Two of her poems are permanently installed in TelePoem Booth, a nation-wide public art exhibition in the U.S. She has shared her work in Kosovo, Canada, Jordan and Tunisia. hülya has been honored with a 2018 WIN Award of British Colombia, Canada. She is presently working on three poetry books and a short-story collection. hülya finds it vital for everyone to understand a deeper sense of self and writes creatively to attain a comprehensive awareness for and development of our humanity. hülya n. yılmaz, Ph.D. Writing Web Site hulyanyilmaz.com Editing Web Site hulyasfreelancing.com
Nizar Sartawi is a poet, translator, essayist, and columnist. He was born in Sarta, Palestine, in 1951. He is a member of literary and cultural organizations, including the Jordanian Writers Association (Jordan), General Union of Arab Writers (Cairo), Poetry Posse (U.S.), Inner Child Press International (U.S.), Bodgani (Belgium), and Axlepin Publishing (the Philippines). He has participated in poetry readings and international forums and festivals in numerous countries, including Jordan, Lebanon, Kosovo, Palestine, Morocco, Egypt, and India. Sartawi’s poems have been translated into several languages. His poetry has been anthologized and published in many anthologies, journals, and newspapers in Arab countries, the U.S., Australia, Indonesia, Bosnia, Italy, India, the Philippines, and Taiwan. Sartawi has published more than 20 books of poetry and poetry translation. His last poetry collection, My Shadow, was published in June, 2017 by Inner Child Press in the U.S. For the last seven years, Sartawi has been working on poetry translation from English to Arabic and Arabic to English. This includes his Arabic poetry translation project, “Arab Contemporary Poets Series” in which 13 bilingual books have been published so far. He also has translated poems for a number of contemporary international poets such as, Veronica Golos, Elaine Equi; William S. Peters; Kalpna Singh-Chitnis; Nathalie Handal, Naomi Shihab Nye; Candice James; Ashok Bhargava; Santiago Villafania, Virginia Jasmin Pasalo; Rosa Jamali; Taro Aizu; Fahredin Shehu, and many others.
Alicja Maria Kuberska an Awarded Polish poetess, novelist, journalist, editor. She was born in 1960, in Świebodzin, Poland. She now lives in Inowrocław, Poland. In 2011 she published her first volume of poems entitled: “The Glass Reality”. Her second volume “Analysis of Feelings”, was published in 2012. The third collection “Moments” was published in English in 2014, both in Poland and in the USA. In 2014, she also published the novel - “Virtual roses” and volume of poems “On the border of dream”. Next year her volume entitled “Girl in the Mirror” was published in the UK and “Love me,” “(Not )my poem” in the USA. In 2015 she also edited anthology entitled “The Other Side of the Screen”. In 2016 she edited two volumes: “Taste of Love” (USA), “Thief of Dreams” ( Poland) and international anthology entitled “ Love is like Air” (USA). In 2017 she published volume entitled “View from the window” (Poland). She also edits series of anthologies entitled “Metaphor of Contemporary” (Poland) Her poems have been published in numerous anthologies and magazines in Poland, the USA, the UK, Albania, Belgium, Chile, Spain, Israel, Canada, India, Italy, Uzbekistan, Czech Republic, South Korea and Australia. She was a featured poet of New Mirage Journal (USA) in the summer of 2011. Alicja Kuberska is a member of the Polish Writers Associations in Warsaw, Poland and IWA Bogdani, Albania. She is also a member of directors’ board of Soflay Literature Foundation.
Swapna Behera is a bilingual contemporary poet, author, translator and editor from Odisha, India .She was a teacher from 1984 to 2015 . Her stories, poems and articles are widely published in National and International journals, and ezines, and are translated into different national and International languages. She has penned four books. She was conferred upon the Prestigious International Poesis Award of Honor at the 2nd Bharat Award for Literature as Jury in 2015, The Enchanting Muse Award in India World Poetree Festival 2017, World Icon of Peace Award in 2017, and the Pentasi B World Fellow Poet in 2017.. She is the recipient of Gold Cross Of Wisdom Award ,the medal for The Best Teachers of the World from World Union of Poets in 2018, and The LIfe time Achievement Award ,The Best Planner Award, The Sahitya Shiromani Award, ATAL BiHARI BAJPAYEE AWARD 2018, Ambassador De Literature Award 2018 .She is the Ambassador of Humanity by Hafrikan Prince Art World Africa 2018 and an official member of World Nation’s Writers Union ,Kazakhstan2018. At present she is the manager at Large, Planner and Columnist of The Literati, the administrator of several poetic groups ,the member of the Special Council of Five of World Union of Poets and the Cultural Ambassador of Inner Child Press U.S.
William S. Peters, Sr. Bill’s writing career spans a period of over 50 years. Being first Published in 1972, Bill has since went on to Author in excess of 40 additional Volumes of Poetry, Short Stories, etc., expressing his thoughts on matters of the Heart, Spirit, Consciousness and Humanity. His primary focus is that of Love, Peace and Understanding! Bill says . . . I have always likened Life to that of a Garden. So, for me, Life is simply about the Seeds we Sow and Nourish. All things we “Think and Do”, will “Be” Cause and eventually manifest itself to being an “Effect” within our own personal “Existences” and “Experiences” . . . whether it be Fruit, Flowers, Weeds or Barren Landscapes! Bill highly regards the Fruits of his Labor and wishes that everyone would thus go on to plant “Lovely” Seeds on “Good Ground” in their own Gardens of Life! to connect with Bill, he is all things Inner Child www.iaminnerchild.com Personal Web Site www.iamjustbill.com
"Salaøm" is the word for peace in Ge'ez, the ancient written language of the Aksum people who are the focus of this New Year's volume of The Year of The Poet. The Aksum may be unfamiliar to many readers and poets, yet they are one of the great civilizations begun so brightly, a counterpoint to the Greek and Roman worlds of the 1st century C.E. The Aksum forged a trading link between the Mediterranean and the Asiatic spheres. Aksum's rise to power began with international relationships and shifts in trade.
They are a now a "lost" civilization whose descendents are African Christians, Jews, and Muslims. It is an age old story of a people who couldn't get along with their neighbors, were overrun, and pushed out into isolation. This shift set in motion the decline of their civilization.
Before the common era the Aksum Queen of Sheba is said to have birthed a Solomonic dynasty that ruled Ethiopia into the modern era. In the 4th Century C.E., King Ezana declared Aksum an Orthodox Christian state and tried to find peace with the neighboring Arabs and the Jews from Aksum's Beta Israel who read scriptures and prayers in Ge’ez. And for a time, salaøm walked beside shalom. These ancient Semitic people are the ancestors of some modern Ethiopians who moved to Israel in the 1970's.
Evidence of Aksum's greatness stands even today in the heart of ancient Ethiopia: monolithic obelisks, giant stelae, royal tombs, and ancient castles—proof of a powerful African state wedged between the Eastern Roman Empire and Persia. They commanded the ivory trade with Sudan and their fleets controlled much of the Red Sea trade. They probably thought they would always be great.
But the people couldn't find peace--salaøm, salaam, shalom—in the neighborhood, couldn't find a way to co-exist and so around the 10th Century C.E. they ceased to exist—forgotten. A thousand years have passed and what have we learned of peace, international exchange and fair trade?
The poets of Inner Child Press and the Poetry Posse seek to share in poetic words our lives, our glories, and challenges, always looking for a way to learn and contribute to a peacefully coexistence with our neighbors so that we can continue to thrive alongside all who walk this earth today.
Searching for Peace in Aksum
The first seven centuries
a common era
travelers and homebodies
greeted each other
winding through Aksum
where now walk the people of
Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea,
Sudan, Somalia, and Yemen
peace in Ge'ez
the liturgical language of Aksum
now gone replaced
Amharic, Tigrigna, Orominga,
roll off the tongues
of modern peoples
Nabáda, salaam, peace
powerful words bring us inside
the circle in
Somali, Arabic, English
Hetep in Egyptian
Salaamata carries peace in Afar
the language of present people
Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti
Salām in the Tigrigna of Eritrea
while the Sudanese speak peace in English,
salaam in Juba and Sudanese Arabic
and paix in French
words to thrive by
Nabáda in the Somali
flows into salaam in Yemen
all the places where once Aksumites
Ge'ez or Classical Ethiopic—"Salām" / ሰላም (peace, salutation, safety), "Salaøm" (peace)—Ethiopia, Eritrea (liturgical).
Somali (som)—"Nabáda" (peace), "Nabad" (peace), “Ma nahad baa” (is there peace), “Nabadda maanka” (peace of mind), "Sulux" (peace), "Dajiyaan" (calm), "Xasilooni" (tranquility)—Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia.
Egyptian—"Hetep" (peace), "Em hotep nefer weret" (very great peace, hello)—Egypt.
Tigrinya (tir), Tigrigna, Tigriña—"Salām" / ሰላም (peace from Proto-Semitic šalām), "Selam" (peace, hello)—Eritrea.
Juba Arabic (pga), Sudanese Creole Arabic—"Salaam" (peace), "Salaam taki" (hello, literally, your peace), "Kalaas, shukran. Maa salaam taki" (that's all, thank you, goodbye (with your peace)—Southern Sudan.
Arabic Words For Peace
Together we search for peace
engage in peace
it is a creative process of words
shared, believed, spoken
suhl, salaam, hudna
the peace of submission
followers in belief
the absence of disobedience
but one will triumph
a break in violence
the absence of the negative
a peace of reconciliation
establishes relationships a new
harmony and suhl
binds individuals into a greater community
that lives inside and out
Galatians 5:22-23 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, forbearance, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self-control. Against such things there is no law.
أمّا ثمَرُ الرّوحِ فهوَ المَحبّةُ والفَرَحُ والسّلامُ والصّبرُ واللُطفُ والصّلاحُ والأمانَةُ 23والوَداعَةُ والعَفافُ. وما مِنْ شَريعَةٍ تنهى عَنْ هذِهِ الأشياءِ.
Arabic (arb)—"Salām" (peace), "Salaam" / سلام from the S-L-M Semitic root, "Hudna" (peace, cease-fire) or "Suhl" (peace, reconciliation)—Middle East with 280 million native speakers in North Africa, the Mideast, Central Asia, and used in liturgical services around the world.
Longing for Home
Deeply embedded in the human psyche
a longing for home
an innate hunger
buried deep in memories
a yearning for the best of what has been
the anticipation of what can
be desire for home
craving the landscape of dreams
More than a yearning for place
a pleasant memory or a dreamed of future
home is a state of being
the deep need to be anchored
secure a restored past
a transformed, fulfilled future
Home of the Daily Peace Challenge. Learn about world peace - one word and one language at a time. (c) Kimberly Burnham, 2020
Peace Dictionary, The Meaning of Peace and Calm in 4000 languages
Looking for grant money to complete my peace project
Kimberly Burnham, PhD (Integrative Medicine)
860-221-8510 phone and what's app. Skype: Kimberly Burnham (Spokane, Washington)
Author of Awakenings, Peace Dictionary, Language and the Mind, a Daily Brain Health and P as in Peace, Paix and Perdamiam: an Inner Peace Journal To Stimulate The Brain
imberly Burnham, The Nerve Whisperer, Brain Health Expert, Professional Health Coach for people with Alzheimer's disease, Memory Issues, Parkinson's disease, Chronic Pain, Huntington's Ataxia, Multiple Sclerosis, Keratoconus, Macular Degeneration, Diabetic Neuropathy, Traumatic Brain Injuries, Spinal Cord Injuries, Brain Health Coaching ... Contact Kimberly Burnham in Spokane Washington (860) 221-8510 NerveWhisperer@gmail.com.
Chat with Kimberly about Parkinson's, Poetry or other Brain related issues.
Not Taking Advantage of Your Amazon Author's page?
Kimberly Burnham helps authors get their books out into the world more broadly by improving their free Amazon Author's page and book pages, posting a book review on her blog and on her LinkedIn Pulse blog (over 12,000 followers) Promotion packages start at $50. Contact her at NerveWhisperer@gmail.com. See her Amazon Author's Page.
See her list of publications including her latest book of brain health meditations, Awakenings: Peace Dictionary, Language and the Mind, a Daily Brain Health Program.
Designed to enhance memory, creativity, and inner peace, Awakenings: Peace,Dictionary, Language and the Mind, a Daily Brain Health Program is available free of charge as a Kindle eBook on February 14-15, 2019. [Click Here].
Please share and write a review on Amazon.
I am looking for guest blog opportunities and a position as poet-in-residence. My current project is writing dictionary poems using words in different languages for the English word "peace." You can read some of my poems on Poemhunter .
As poet-in-residence I would write poems on different words in different languages and broadcast them throughout the social media blogosphere. Each poem would link back to your site where the word or language appeared.
I would expect some sort of stipend and a six month to one year placement. Please contact me for details if your organization is interested in having a poet-in-residence to help get your message out. Nervewhisperer@gmial.com
Buy the print or eBook, review Awakenings then contact Kimberly for a free 20 minute brain health consultation. Email or Phone
(Regular rates $120 per hour or 10 sessions for $650.)